Por que as narrativas nacionais permanecem? Revisão de literatura sobre novas perspectivas na pesquisa dos livros didáticos de história

Palavras-chave: Livro Didático de História, Didática, Narrativas Nacionais, Análises Holísticas, Ensino de História.

Resumo

As narrativas nacionais servem frequentemente para mobilizar as massas para a guerra através de mitos e interpretações distorcidas do passado, enquanto as guerras funcionam como importantes fontes para a formação das narrativas nacionais. Como a história nacional normalmente permanece central no ensino de história, ainda que hoje de formas diversas de como se tratava o tema há 50 anos, é necessário compreender melhor estruturas e mecanismos subjacentes dessas narrativas nos livros didáticos de história. O presente artigo de revisão pretende delinear a interconexão histórica entre o nascimento dos estados nacionais e o ensino de história, assim como explicar a complexidade do livro didático de história como recurso educacional, para então identificar alguns problemas e desafios atuais para as pesquisas sobre os livros didáticos dessa disciplina. Evidenciaremos tendências promissoras das pesquisas, sobre narrativas nacionais conduzidas principalmente através da análise de imagens, da utilização de recursos digitais, e dos estudos sobre a autonomia da narrativa dos livros didáticos e da história dos livros didáticos em relação a outros meios de transmissão de conhecimento. Outro avanço recente na pesquisa dos livros didáticos é pensá-los de maneira holística. Estamos nos referindo aos estudos que consideram o livro didático como um todo: estrutura, periodização, intertextualidade das imagens e capítulos que, a princípio, parecem não estar centrados em uma história nacional. Estes estudos têm oferecido novas visões e explicações para a permanência das narrativas nacionais nos livros didáticos de história.

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Biografia do Autor

Maria Grever, Erasmus University Rotterdam
Maria Grever é professora de teoria e metodologia da história e diretora fundadora do Centro de Cultura Histórica da Universidade de Erasmus, em Roterdã (Holanda). Seus interesses de pesquisa envolvem: consciência histórica, teoria e historiografia, memória coletiva e identidade. Atualmente, lidera o projeto de pesquisa “Guerra! Cultura Popular e Herança Histórica Europeia de Grandes Conflitos Armados”. É autora e organizadora de diversos livros e artigos científicos em revistas como Paedagogica Historica, o British Journal of Educational Studies, e o Journal of Curriculum Studies. Ver https://www.eur.nl/people/maria-grever
Tina van der Vlies, Erasmus University Rotterdam
Tina van der Vlied é doutoranda e professora do Centro de Cultura Histórica da Universidade de Erasmus, em Roterdã (Holanda). Sua pesquisa sobre narrativas nacionais em livros didáticos de história ingleses e holandeses (1920-2010) tem o financiamento da Organização Holandesa de Pesquisa Científica (OHPS). Publicou recentemente o artigo “Narrativas multidirecionais das guerras nos livros didáticos de história”, na revista Paedagogica Historica 52: 3 (2016). Este artigo é baseado em um trabalho que recebeu o Prêmio ISCHE de Início de Carreira, em 2015. Ver https://www.eur.nl/people/tina-van-der-vlies.

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Publicado
2020-10-30
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Grever, M., & Vlies, T. (2020). Por que as narrativas nacionais permanecem? Revisão de literatura sobre novas perspectivas na pesquisa dos livros didáticos de história. Escritas Do Tempo, 2(5), 39-65. https://doi.org/10.47694/10.47694/issn.2674-7758.v2.i5.2020.3965
Seção
v. 2 n. 5 (2020) Dossiê: Ensino de História, livro didático e formação docente